Tag Archives: Arthur Costa

International Conference on Thinking in New Zealand January 2013

Please join me at the International Conference on Thinking in New Zealand January 2013 where I will be speaking on the relationship between language and thinking.

This is an opportunity to hear from cutting edge thinkers, researchers and practitioners who are drawn from such fields as education, health sciences, the arts, sciences, sports, government and business.

The Conference themes of ‘Future survival’, ‘Future society’ and ‘Personal futures’ impact on everyone, from all disciplines.

Over the five days of the conference you can participate in full day master classes run by invited speakers. Listen to the world leading keynote and featured presenters and participate in a stimulating program of over 250 presentations and workshops. Combine this with a magical ‘tour’ program, artistic performances, two receptions, a conference gala dinner, and you are sure to have an unforgettable experience.

Check out the conference here
http://us2.campaign-archive1.com/?u=4ac5b170022f98e9de26c12f4&id=6748c307f2


Supported by Massey University of New Zealand

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Distractions and Engagement

Everywhere I go now there are TV screens. In the doctor’s waiting room, at the car repairers, in restaurants, at airports. Everywhere. It’s as though we are being told that we don’t know how to amuse ourselves with our own thoughts or with a book.

I remember the great conversations we had as a family when our kids were small. We would go out to dinner every now and then and the new environment, the people around us, the occasion itself were spurs to some great discussions, lots of laughter and questions, questions, questions from the kids. They were curious and intrigued by everything. We relished the opportunities to interact with them and get them thinking about what they saw and heard.

I was in a restaurant last week and at the adjacent table was a family of five. The parents had their eyes pretty much glued to the TV screen on the wall in front of them, two of the kids were profoundly involved with their phones and the third just sat gazing into the middle distance. What else could he do? There was no one to talk to.

The disturbing thing was that my phone was sitting on the table on front of me, and it buzzed. My hand went almost instinctively to pick it up, to check out what piece of utter trivia or earth shattering importance was waiting for me. We were in the lull between having placed our order and receiving it. That space where you dip your bread in the olive oil and balsamic and try not to take too much edge off your appetite. It was the time when you check out the other diners, rearrange your napkin, ponder whether dessert is a likely option tonight. I knew if I picked up my phone, my companion would probably pick up his and there we would be, both tied by our eyeballs to our phones.  Conversation potential zilch!

When did we forget to talk to each other? When did the world around us decide that we could no longer be occupied with our own thoughts and the thoughts of others? Why are we allowing this to happen?

I think we are in real danger of forgetting how to engage – to engage with ourselves and with others. I fear that we are becoming immersed in a sea of distractions that tug us away from one another, and away from what goes on in our own heads. On our phones we flick from email, to twitter, to facebook, and back again. On our computers we hit link after link, scanning articles, leaving them half read and hardly considered as we move on to the next fascinating throw away tag line.

I think we need to learn a whole new set of manners about smart phone use in public. I also believe we need to teach our kids and ourselves to resist the temptation to flit about like intellectual butterflies from one distraction to another, from one hyperlink to the next. We need to teach our kids and ourselves how to engage.

It is possible to set an Ipad so that the opportunities for browsing are limited. With ‘Guided Access’ the teacher or parent can restrict usage to a single application and control which features are available. If your kids are using Ipads at home or at school for a specific purpose you can encourage them to stay on task, in focus and not be tempted to flutter off to the next pretty flower.

My son tells me of a great smartphone game when groups go out to dinner together. Everyone puts their phone in a pile in the center of the table, one on top of the other. The first person to pick up a phone should it ring or buzz has to buy a round of drinks.

Students easily become overloaded by the sheer volume of sources available to them when researching on the internet. Instead of allowing them to jump from source to source, teach them how to thoroughly investigate one or two. Show them how to determine the source of the information, encourage them to read to the end, ask them to compare and evaluate two sources on the same subject, for example www.crazydogtheoriesonhealth.com and www.mayoclinic.com or www.theearthreallyisflat.org and www.nationalgeographic.com.

Start a movement! The Bring Back Conversations Movement. Create a T shirt. Ask for a table where you can sit with your back to the TV in a restaurant. Design a bumper sticker. Start a conversation group.  Do whatever it takes to encourage people to communicate with clarity and precision and to listen with empathy and understanding.

In the book Nurture Shock by Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman I discovered that simply placing children in desegregated schools doesn’t appear to lead to greater racial interaction. Young children when dressed in either a red or a blue t-shirt at school will eventually choose their friends from those kids wearing the same color shirt. It seems to be that only when we talk about something can we begin to influence behavior. We need to talk to our kids about the need for conversation. We need to teach them how to participate. We should be encouraging them to explore the contents of their own mind and the minds of others and then to share their ideas.

It isn’t one thing or another. We should be teaching our kids how to be sociable users of social media. We should also be teaching them how to interact and communicate without always needing an electronic gadget as an intermediary.

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Our Kids Are Not Hamburgers

 “Education reform movements are often based on the fast food model of quality assurance: on standardization and conformity. What’s needed is a much higher standard of provision based on the principles of personalized learning for every child and of schools customizing their cultures to meet local circumstances. This is not a theory. There are schools everywhere that demonstrate the practical power of these principles to transform education.

 

Standardization tends to emphasize the lowest common denominator. Human aspirations reach much higher and if the conditions are right they succeed. Understanding those conditions is the real key to transforming education for all our children.” SirKenRobinson.com

 

It seems that every education system in the world is trying to reinvent itself. My interests lie mainly in two systems – Australia and the USA. Of course, neither of these can be understood without reference to what is going on elsewhere in the world. What bothers me is that the focus in both systems is on end points and how to measure if we have reached them.

 

In Australia there is no fudging that the development is all about curriculum, assessment and reporting. A complex process is afoot to write a curriculum (or standards, since we hope that the implementation and delivery will be left to the professional judgment of educators)and alongside that to design assessment materials that will measure in a standardized fashion the extent to which those end points have been reached at the conclusion of each school year.

 

In the USA we wait with bated breath as the Core Curriculum State Standards are implemented and each state develops its own standardized assessment tools.

 

In other words, both countries are standardizing a set of expected outcomes and a battery of ways to measure outcomes in a standardized fashion. For every child, in every context.

 

Since the standards cover schooling from K – 12, we are making assumptions about the kind of knowledge a child entering school today will need when he or she leaves school in 2025. Wow!

 

How many times I have listened to the experts tell me that we don’t know what the employment needs will be in five years’ time, let alone thirteen. The rate of technological, economic and social change is accelerating. Our kids walk around with cell phones in their hands today that do the work of large desk computers of five years ago – and more. Yet we believe we can reform education by setting standards for curriculum that specify the kinds of knowledge our kids will need when they leave school.

 

Don’t get me wrong. We need standards if we are not to flail around in a free for all soup of educational practices. The standards as expressed are sound and significant but the dangers lie in the implementation and evaluation.

 

Let’s not fall for the standardization myth, the one that says unless every kid reaches the same standard with the same material in the same time frame, our system has somehow failed. Our kids are not assembly line products. The assembly line, quality control model works well for cars and hamburgers. We can control and standardize inputs, ensure a high, common standard of processing and then evaluate each item as it rolls off the end of the line.

But some kids grow up on farms and others in high rise tenements, some kids love to bury their noses in books, others need to push their bodies around, move and do stuff with their hands. Some kids’ brains are eager to accept abstract concepts at an early age and some want images, pictures and sounds with their learning. Some kids can’t sit still. And we really don’t have a clue what they will need to be successful in thirteen years’ time – except for one thing. They will need to be able think flexibly, creatively, effectively and efficiently. Whatever the world looks like in 2025, we know this ability will be a foundation for whatever their lives look like.

 

My hope is that as we continue to reform our education systems in Australia and the USA we don’t lose sight of the fact that the declaration of standards needs to remain flexible, adaptive to the needs of kids and open to change. The teaching of thinking needs to be explicitly embedded within the standards. It should be foundational, not incidental. In addition, our methods of assessment need to reflect the rich and totally desirable variation among children. We limit our aspirations when we expect every child to meet the same set of expectations, whatever they may be, and penalize those who do not.

 

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The need was never greater

I am a regular user of social media. It helps me keep in touch with friends and family all over the world. I have even found people again with whom I had lost contact through the twists and turns of the decades. But I have decided to absent myself from the political discussions that I find there. I will watch but try hard not to participate. Why? Because they are so disheartening.

We choose our friends, and in doing so we insulate ourselves from the more extreme edges of society, the places that are anathema to our own values and views of the world. But online we find ourselves linked in to a much wider and more diverse network as we see the posts of our online friends being responded to by their friends and contacts. From time t to time I have joined in. But no more – if I can help it.

The abuse, intolerance and failure to exercise reasoned judgment that I have encountered online have dismayed me. Never have I been made more aware of the need to teach our students how to think, how to examine evidence, to take in data from all sources, to listen with empathy and understanding to the arguments of others and to express their own thoughtful opinions with clarity and precision.

Let us hope that educators will do a good enough job to ensure that the next generation of voters is more informed, more thoughtful, more analytical and more just. They say that we get the governments we deserve. Our children deserve the best. It is our responsibility to ensure that as they grow and learn they are equipped to choose the best.

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Is that all there is?

Do you recall the Peggy Lee song, “Is That All There Is?”

This is an educational meditation on that song. Listen to it on YouTube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qe9kKf7SHco

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“If that’s all there is my friend, then lets keep dancing. “

Not that I have anything against dancing.
How much time do you spend trying to knock into your students’ heads the names of the nation’s founding documents, the steps involved in doing long division or the difference between an adverbial phrase and a adverbial clause?
I’ve got bad news for you. In the middle of summer, after the tests all done, while lying down in the back yard watching clouds, chasing a wave at the beach or noodling on the sofa with a Gameboy, your kids probably won’t remember any of it.
But that’s not all there is, so don’t start dancing just yet.
You can teach them something that will transform their lives. Something that will ensure they thrive in the twenty first century. Something that will enable them to see more in the clouds, ride a wave with even greater skill and exhilaration and win games. You can teach them how to think.
Our foundation of knowledge is increasing exponentially and the skill sets for jobs twenty years from now haven’t even been determined yet. There is only one profound tool we can provide our young people with that we know for sure they will need – the ability to think creatively, innovatively and effectively.
It’s an exciting and bewildering world they face. Every time they turn around they will bump into a problem whose solution isn’t immediately apparent. Those facts and routines you’ve been hammering into their heads won’t help much then. What they will need are the thinking tools and the behaviors and dispositions that enable them to think through and solve those problems.
Effective thinking is the foundation on which everything else rests. It deserves priority in every curriculum and planning document that is written. Without it, if the facts and routines are all there is, then let’s keep dancing,a slow, sad dance without form or grand finale.

But teach them how to think, and we can leap into a celebratory tarantella together.

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Don’t Let Them Steal the Riches

I had made an agreement with myself to write a blog every week. Sometimes life catches up with us and we are lured away from our intentions. The call of a rocky coastline, a box of oil paints and brushes, a canvas and a convivial group of artists was too much to resist. My apologies! But now I am back and here are my thoughts for this week. Please share yours with me.

I have been following the growth of the Victorian State Schools Spectacular for a few years now. It is one of the largest recurring performances in Australia and is a professionally staged production performed at Melbourne Park to an audience of over 10,000 people.

The amazing thing is that it involves a cast of almost 3000 government school students, working towards a common goal in a collaborative, competition-free environment. They sing, they dance and they have a wild and wonderful time. The end product demonstrates the talents, the discipline and the imagination of our kids. And guess what? It isn’t a test! That’s right, it is deliberately NON-COMPETITIVE. Time is taken out of the regular school year to give our kids this experience, and it grows from a long history of enrichment activities that are part and parcel of the school experience in Victorian schools.

When I was a classroom teacher in Victoria we had a school camp every year from grade one up. In grade one everyone slept over at the school. We all bedded down on the floor and giggled and grumbled our way through the night. Next morning we fed all our little people and their parents picked them up around 9.30 am. Each year the number of nights increased until grade 6, when all the kids went camping under canvas for five full days.

We also put on a school production each year. This would be an all singing, all dancing extravaganza and would usually involve every child in grade five and six in some way, on stage or back stage. Once again, this all took time out of the regular school day. Often we would perform the show on two nights in a local theatre and the excitement and pride that was felt by students and the whole community was palpable. This tradition would be continued once they got to secondary school.

We taught all our kids how to swim. The goal was to have them ‘drown proofed’ by the age of 7. For two weeks all our younger children would go to the swimming pool in buses every morning. They would come back bedraggled and weary, so afternoons were usually pretty quiet and low key.

We knew how much our kids learned through participation in camps, swimming and productions. They learned about self-discipline, cooperation, persistence, imagination and about worlds that were often well outside their daily life experiences. We enabled city kids to sit around a camp fire at night looking at stars, we made it possible for the disengaged kid to become the lighting manager’s right hand man. and maybe we saved some kids’ lives in the future because they knew how to stay afloat. We did so much that was valuable. And none of it was tested. Interestingly, our kids have done very well indeed in international measures of literacy and numeracy.

Imagine my horror when I was advised by my supervisor  at the last school I administered that my kids could not take advantage of an opportunity to use the local swimming pool once the end of year tests were completed. The pool was next door, we had been offered access and life guards and it was two weeks before the end of the school year. The reason? “It is an inappropriate use of instructional time”. We should be preparing the kids for next year’s tests.

Things are changing. We need to be on our guard. This is what happens when test scores become more important than education.

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It’s Not The Kids’ Fault!

I had a conversation yesterday that disturbed me. “The problem with teaching is a lack of respect,” I was told. I assumed this person meant a lack of respect for the profession of teaching. But I was wrong. He was suggesting that the poor behavior of kids today was because the kids lack respect for their teachers. He described how, when he was a boy, students would stand up straight, next to their desks when the teacher entered the room, greet the teacher in unison and then wait until they were told to sit down. I remember that too – but not fondly. That wasn’t respect. It was obedience, often without thought and regardless of how the students felt about the teacher. An iron rule will achieve that kind of obedience for even a loathed teacher. It has little to do with respect.

Within the same school, with kids allocated basically at random to different teachers, I have seen some teachers able to have students eating out of their hands, while another has them cursing and throwing objects around the room. What’s the difference? The students are pretty much the same in both classrooms. The difference is the teacher. I recall walking into a grade three classroom where every child was head down, working quietly on some project or other. I looked for the teacher – she wasn’t there. Down the hallway I had had to put a teacher’s assistant in a classroom in order to help the classroom teacher maintain a semblance of order so the kids could learn.

I’m tired of hearing that the kids are the problem. We have always had difficult kids. In the past, order was maintained with the strap and with fear. Kids feared teachers, the principal, and their parents if word got home of misbehavior. Much of that fear has gone and some teachers struggle with finding something to replace it.

What is it that some teachers do in challenging classrooms filled with kids from difficult backgrounds? It really comes down to a small number of powerful, practical strategies. These teachers have clearly established routines. They are consistent and they do what they say will do. Their kids know explicitly what is expected of them and they know what success will look like. Above all this, these teachers know how to engage their kids in activities that grab their intellects, their senses and their emotions.

They also know that if they can effectively teach their students how to think skillfully, they will be able to approach everything that goes on in the classroom from an intelligent, thoughtful point of view. By teaching the behaviors that characterize thoughtful, successful people their students will know how to listen with empathy, to manage their impulsivity, to think and work interdependently.

Where do our teachers learn all this? In my experience teacher education programs today offer very little explicit teaching about the HOW of teaching. They focus on the WHAT. Some of our teachers, those who have completed the short course teacher preparation programs, have only demonstrated that they were good learners. They are then sent into schools where, with the support of teacher mentors, they are expected to learn all these things by watching them in action. That assumes two things – that they will see the best examples of how teaching can be done, and that the teacher mentors have the time to spend with them, to educate them in their profession. Those who complete longer professional preparation programs are still often short changed in the pedagogical education they need to be effective teachers with their first class.

How effective was your preparation to be a teacher? Did it teach you how to teach or were you expected to learn most of it ‘on the job’? How would you feel if your surgeon, your accountant or your motor mechanic learned the techniques of his trade ‘on the job’, just by watching someone else do it? Would you be happy to be one of his first patients or clients?

As we tinker away with curriculum and assessment and as we advocate for better facilities and more technology, let’s not forget that the greatest influence on student achievement is none of these.

The most important factor is the teacher. Improving teacher education may be a long term solution, but it’s the only one that will make a difference.

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